The vaginal and uterine blood flow changes during the ovsynch program and its impact on the pregnancy rates in Holstein dairy cows
Artículo de revista
Aim OvSynch is a hormonal protocol for synchronization of estrus and use of artificial insemination (AI) at an optimal time without adverse effects on the ovaries or uterus. This study investigated the use of noninvasive color Doppler ultrasound to assess changes in uterine and vaginal blood flow during the Ovsynch program for synchronization of estrus and its relation to the pregnancy rates in Holstein cows. Materials and methods The experimental cows received an intramuscular dose of 10 μg of a GnRH analogue (G1), followed 7 days later with an intramuscular injection of synthetic prostaglandin F2α (P: PGF2α) analogue (500 μg cloprostenol sodium), and given a 10 μg, injection of the GnRH analogue (G2) i.m. 48 h after the PGF2α treatment, and the cows were bred 14-16 h after. Uterine and vaginal perfusion were investigated by performing transrectal Doppler ultrasonography of both the uterine and vaginal arteries in Holstein cows at different time points during the Ovsynch program to determine: peak systolic velocity (PSV), time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), the volume of blood flow (BFV), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), resistance impedance (S/D) and diameters of uterine (UA) and vaginal (VA) arteries. Steroid hormones were also assayed. Transrectal ultrasonography (TUS) was performed at 32 and 60 days to confirm the pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI). Results The uterine PSV, TAMV, and PV were greater at the time of the cloprostenol sodium and second GnRH injections (p<0.05) than at the time of the first GnRH injection. The vaginal PSV, PV were greater at the time of the cloprostenol sodium than at the time of the first and second GnRH injections (p<0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) indicated a high correlation between the uterine and vaginal blood flow and the rate of the pregnancy (p<0.05). The area under the ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.87 (p<0.05) for vaginal and uterine arteries respectively at time of G2. The serum levels of progesterone, estrogen and cortisol were correlated with the P/AI (p<0.05). The P/AI significantly decreased from 43.9 % at 32 d to 35.37 % at 60 d. Conclusion These results indicate that noninvasive Doppler ultrasonography is a valid method to evaluate changes in the characteristics of uterine and vaginal blood flow in cows during the Ovsynch protocol. Furthermore, vaginal and uterine blood flow are two determinant factors for the higher conception rates in Holstein dairy cows.