Toxoplasma gondii in small ruminants in northeastern areas of Colombia: Seroprevalence and risk factors
Artículo de revista
Sheep and goats are susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and could play an important role in the transmission of the zoonotic parasite to human. We conducted a cross sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence and to assess the risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in small ruminants under traditional husbandry systems. This study was carried out from November 2015 to April 2016 in randomly selected small ruminants (n = 1038) from 48 farms located in Colombia, in the departments of northern Cesar in the north and La Guajira in the south. An indirect ELISA was used to detect IgG antibodies to T. gondii in the animals. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on putative risk factors. We conducted the association analyses by using univariable and multivariate logistic regression and report odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (C.I). The overall seroprevalence in small ruminants was 23.5% (C.I: 21–26.2%). Sheep showed a higher seroprevalence (25.1% C.I: 22.4–28.6%) than goats (18.4% C.I: 22.4–28.6%). The association analysis recognized as risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity farming pigs in addition to small ruminants (OR = 1.96 C.I: 1.414–2.743), the inexistence of manure heap (OR = 2.254 C.I: 1.480–3.433) and drinking water from locally aqueducts (OR = 1.489 C.I: 1.006–2.204). The results of the study confirmed that exposure to T. gondii is common in sheep and goats in dry Caribbean regions of Colombia.