Proteomic profiling of splenic interstitial fluid of malnourished mice infected with Leishmania infantum reveals defects on cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory response
Artículo de revista
Protein malnutrition is a risk factor for developing visceral leishmaniasis. Because we previously demonstrated that protein malnutrition and infection with Leishmania infantum disrupts the splenic microarchitecture in BALB/c mice, alters T cell-subsets and increases splenic parasite load, we hypothesize that splenic microenvironment is precociously compromised in infected animals that suffered a preceding malnutrition. To evaluate this, we characterized the abundance of proteins secreted in the splenic interstitial fluid (IF) using an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach. In addition, local levels of pro-inflammatory and proliferation molecules were analyzed. Whereas well-nourished infected animals showed increased IL-1β and IL-2 levels, malnourished-infected mice displayed significant reduction of these cytokines. Remarkably, a two-weeks infection with L. infantum already modified protein abundance in the splenic IF of well-nourished mice, but malnourished animals failed to respond to infection in the same fashion. Malnutrition induced significant reduction of chemotactic and pro-inflammatory molecules as well as of proteins involved in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism, indicating an impaired proliferative microenvironment. Accordingly, a significant decrease in Ki67 expression was observed, suggesting that splenocyte proliferation is compromised in malnourished animals. Together, our results show that malnutrition compromises the splenic microenvironment and alters the immune response to the parasite in malnourished individuals. Significance: Protein malnutrition is recognized as an important epidemiological risk factor for developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Locally secreted factors present in the interstitial fluid have important roles in initiating immune responses and in regulating fluid volume during inflammation. However, the regulation of secreted factors under pathological conditions such as malnutrition and infection are widely unknown. To analyze how protein malnutrition alters secreted proteins involved in the immune response to L. infantum infection we evaluated the proteomic profile of the interstitial fluid of the spleen in malnourished BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Our work revealed new elements that contribute to the understanding of the immunopathological events in the spleen of malnourished animals infected with L. infantum and opens new pathways for consideration of other aspects that could improve VL treatment in malnourished individuals.
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