Nanovaccines against animal pathogens: The latest findings
Celis Giraldo, Carmen Teresa | 2021
Nowadays, safe and efficacious vaccines represent powerful and cost-effective tools for global health and economic growth. In the veterinary field, these are undoubtedly key tools for improving productivity and fighting zoonoses. However, cases of persistent infections, rapidly evolving pathogens having high variability or emerging/re-emerging pathogens for which no effective vaccines have been developed point out the continuing need for new vaccine alternatives to control outbreaks. Most licensed vaccines have been successfully used for many years now; however, they have intrinsic limitations, such as variable efficacy, adverse effects, and some shortcomings. More effective adjuvants and novel delivery systems may foster real vaccine effectiveness and timely implementation. Emerging vaccine technologies involving nanoparticles such as self-assembling proteins, virus-like particles, liposomes, virosomes, and polymeric nanoparticles offer novel, safe, and high-potential approaches to address many vaccine development-related challenges. Nanotechnology is accelerating the evolution of vaccines because nanomaterials having encapsulation ability and very advantageous properties due to their size and surface area serve as effective vehicles for antigen delivery and immunostimulatory agents. This review discusses the requirements for an effective, broad-coverage-elicited immune response, the main nanoplatforms for producing it, and the latest nanovaccine applications for fighting animal pathogens.