Factores de la gobernanza ambiental local en la política forestal nacional: análisis a partir de estudios de casos en los municipios de Suesca y Chipaque- Bogotá periferia Norte y Sur
Sánchez Rodriguez, Rosa Elena | 2020-10
In our days the topic of environmental governance becomes one of the most relevant and urgent topics of today. In Colombia, different modes of environmental governance coexist; at the national, departmental, municipal, regional, urban and rural levels with hierarchical schemes, collaborative and interactive decentralized between public and private, generator of conflicts for the normal urban, agro-industrial and extractive transformation of nature, the problem is based on processes that end up affecting the territories, the environment and therefore the communities that inhabit them, because as the human community grows, the socio-economic, cultural and technological demands increase, which could be said to be apparently satisfied, that is, supplied through the use of natural resources without taking into account the evident effects that it is actually causing in the biogeographic environment.
With the case study analyzed in the municipalities of Suesca and Chipaque-Bogotá, north and south border, we find trajectories of socio-economic development that reveal particularly visible problems that are raised by the communities and have effects on their dynamics of life; economic, social, productive, environmental that put in risk of increased deterioration of the water resources, arboreal and the sustainability of the territories, having little possibility to transform them.
In local governance, it is essential to act on the basis of the broad concept of interactions and the complexity of the territory, which apparently presents several questions of legitimacy in terms of mechanisms for participation in politics for environmental public management, in terms of the lack of formal mechanisms for involve civil society in decision-making regarding the habitat and natural resources with which they coexist in their localities, which therefore has immersed socio-environmental conflicts that have taken place in these areas, such as lack of opportunities for the settled population, lack of technification, financial support, poor provision of services in the ordinary exercise of public functions; every day thousands of hectares are deforested, dozens of species are endangered and communities do not practice a way of life more in line with the natural environment, with technological advances and with increased consumerism. Issues in the state together with territorial entities present in the jurisdiction of the municipality must do everything in their power to create spaces for participation to achieve agreement on social problems in which the unsustainable management that has been given to resources and the need to put in place measures to avoid total danger.
Through literature review and study of national forest environmental policies and identifying case-specific concerns of the territories; with the analysis of the information with focus groups and semi-structured interviews with local actors, the research tries to understand new processes of local governance and community forms that provide solutions to environmental phenomena that require redirection of efforts and cooperation with new approaches that reconstruct the interaction between actors from different sectors in settings for the revision and updating of environmental regulations, environmental awareness among inhabitants and the inclusion of civil society in a legitimate way in cominito regulations with institutional, governmental support that provides solutions that increasingly strengthen the optimal and effective development of its inhabitants and territories.