Morphometric, anatomic and radiographic study of the scapula in the white‐footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus): report of scapular cartilage and one variation in cranial (superior) transverse scapular ligament
Vélez García, Juan Fernando | 2019
The white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) is an endangered endemic primate of Colombia, mainly due to the deforestation of its habitat and illegal trade, which generates a high incidence of these animals in wildlife care centres. Musculoskeletal system disorders in S. leucopus are one of the most common diseases and therefore the aim of this study was to contribute to the morphologic studies with a morphometric, anatomic and radiographic description of the scapula in this species to provide a basis for medical interventions, surgical approaches, radiologic diagnoses and comparative functions of this bone. Gross dissections of each scapular region were made in eight specimens without a diagnosis of osteomuscular disease. These specimens died from natural cases in the wildlife care centres of the Corporación Autónoma Regional de Caldas (CORPORCALDAS); after necropsy their carcasses were fixed with 10% formaldehyde, 5% mineral oil and 1% phenic acid in these centres over the course of at least 1 week. X-rays of the scapula were taken in the small animal clinic of the Universidad del Tolima, and morphometric data of the scapulae were obtained with a digital calliper. The scapula of the white-footed tamarin was a flat triangular bone with a deep scapular notch in its cranial margin, where there was a cranial transverse scapular ligament that was absent in two specimens. The coracoid process was highly developed, medially covering the humeral joint. The dorsal margin was covered by the scapular cartilage, which was highly developed in the caudal angle. In the dorsal fourth of the caudal margin, there was a surface from which the m. teres major originated. The lateral surface had a scapular spine with a long hamatus process of the acromion until the lateral part of the humeral joint. The infraspinatus fossa was wider than the supraspinous fossa. On the costal surface, the subscapular fossa was formed by three subscapular lines and one subscapular ridge, the latter helping to form the surface for the m. teres major. In the two radiographic views, caudocranial to the scapula and dorsoventral to the thorax, the scapular spine, acromion, coracoid process, scapular incisura, supraglenoid tubercle, caudal margin, subscapular ridge, and the joints with the clavicle and the humerus could be observed. The scapula of the white-footed tamarin presented bony reliefs that share characteristics with other primates but also with domestic mammals due to its quadrupedal locomotion, which allowed us to correlate its morphologic adaptation with its quadrupedal arboreal displacement.